Azoospermia may be due to poor production of sperm, a problem in transport of sperm, or a problem with the ejaculatory process. TESA (testicular sperm aspiration) and TESE (testicular sperm extraction) are indicated when normal motile spermatozoa cannot be produced
PGD and PGS
Cases with known chromosomal or genetic defects will benefit from PGD. Cases who have multiple previous failed ICSI trials or who experienced recurrent pregnancy losses due to chromosomal defects may have benefit from PGS with selection of the chromosomally normal embryo(s) for transfer
Intra uterine insemination
Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI) and ovarian stimulation with exogenous hormones is the alternative with the highest probability of pregnancy. The form of AI will be influenced by the effective sperm count, ovarian stimulation and deposition of sperm in the female reproductive tract.
This is the best modality of embryo freezing. All studies report better survival and higher pregnancy rates with vitrification than standard slow freezing. By this procedure, couples who have ICSI or IVF can increase their chances of having a child and also decrease the cost they bear.